The Malay Annals (Malay: Sejarah Melayu), originally titled Sulalatus Salatin (Genealogy of Kings), is a literary work that gives a romanticised history of the origin, evolution and demise of the great Malay maritime empire, the Malacca Sultanate. The work which was composed sometime between 15th and 16th centuries, is considered one of the finest literary and historical works in the Malay language. The original text has undergone numerous changes, with the oldest known version dated May 1612, through the rewriting effort commissioned by the then regent of Johor, Yang di-Pertuan Di Hilir Raja Abdullah. It was originally written in the Classical Malay on traditional paper in old Jawi script, but today exists in 32 different manuscripts, including those in Rumi script. Notwithstanding some of its mystical contents, historians have looked at the text as a primary source of information on past events verifiable by other historical sources, in the Malay world. In 2001, the Malay Annals was listed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme International Register. The Malay Annals is a historical literature written in the form of narrative-prose with its main theme was to laud the greatness and superiority of Melaka. The narration, while seemingly relating the story of the reign of the sultans of Melaka until the demise of the sultanate to the Portuguese in 1511 and beyond, deals with a core issue of Malay statehood and historiography, the relationship between rulers and ruled. The Annals are prefaced by a celebration of the greatness of God, the Prophet and his companions. They begin with a genealogical account of the first sultan of Melaka who is said to be descended from Raja Iskandar Zulkarnain. The Annals cover the founding of Melaka and its rise to power; its relationship with neighbouring kingdoms and distant countries; the advent of Islam and its spread in Melaka and the region as a whole; the history of the royalty in the region including battles won or lost, marriage ties and diplomatic relationships; the administrative hierarchy that ruled Melaka; the greatness of its rulers and administrators, including the Bendahara Tun Perak and Laksamana, Hang Tuah. The Annals conclude with the account of Melaka's defeat by the Portuguese forces in 1511, resulting not only in the downfall of Melaka, but also in the eventual reemergence of the Melakan-modeled sultanates in other parts of the region, including Johor, Perak and Pahang.